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Consequently, experimental designs are researh depicted in textbooks on research methods as particularly effective in the context of establishing defini- tive causal connections. Mitchell, ; Yin,will be presented. Different ssocial of positivism can be found; Halfpenny identi- fies twelve. Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime.
Following an examination of the literature on the shape and form of organizations, the imagery stage, the Aston researchers discerned five basic dimensions: Description There is a clear recognition among most ethnographers that one of the main purposes of their research style is to provide detailed descriptions of the social settings they investigate. It is not easy for ethnographers to sustain the constant recourse to seeing through the eyes of their subjects.
Quantitative research is invariably much more messy. As suggested in the previous chapter, this research tradition is usually depicted as exhibiting many of the hallmarks of a natural science approach. The former implies that we understand, for example, that a particular kind of facial expression is indicative of anger; explanatory understanding occurs when we probe the motive for the outburst of anger. First, Cohen argues that it is crucial to have understood the chief quatnity of referent used by the islanders—kinship, neighbouring, and fishing crew—in order to appreciate the bases of their allegiances to different segments of the community.
In all probability, it is not replica- tion that is important so much as replicability. Griffin a, b used this method as alah of a qualitative research project on brynan transition from school to work for a number of young women. There’s a problem loading this menu right now.
Patterns of interaction within each of twelve US cities were the chief focus of investigation. The first two ingre- dients probably come closest to what most people mean by positivism and are also the ones which recur most strikingly in the various exposi- tions of it. We are concerned with disorder as it is seen by our participants and as it is represented in their accounts.
Quantity and Quality in Social Research
Research methods were required which reflected and capitalized upon the special character of people as objects of inquiry. School reseaech raphers have to be qkantity to the different perceptions of teachers, parents and pupils. It tends to involve false trails, blind alleys, serendipity and hunches to a much greater degree than the idealization implies.
The preoccu- pation with causality can be readily seen as a consequence of the ten- dency among quantitative researchers to seek to absorb the methods and assumptions of the natural scientist which have tended to be inter- preted in positivist terms. In an experiment, there are at least two groups to which subjects have been randomly allocated: Rather, she suggests that they are motivated by a quest for the fun quanntity pleasure which are the products of involvement in the world of upper- level drug dealing.
The widespread use of factor analysis in the social sciences exemplifies this point. What seems to be a more criti- cal issue is the ability to replicate, and it is this which is something of a preoccupation among researchers in the quantitative tradition. Nor is it the emphasis on accumu- lating quantitative data by those working within the tradition that the critics of quantitative research find unacceptable.
He depicts symbolic interactionism as resting on three premises: Conterminously, he was concerned to provide a frame- work for the rebuttal of the growing incursion of positivism in the social sciences in the s and s. A further difficulty is that even among more sophisticated treat- ments of positivism a wide range of meanings is likely to be discerned.
Quantity and Quality in Social Research : Alan Bryman :
This possibility may prompt other researchers sovial establish generality. The theme of naturalism has been particularly evi- dent in the study of deviance. For example, Cuba and Lincoln propose a contrast between rationalistic i. Further, the debate has made incursions into a variety resezrch territories: Causality Quantitative research is often highly preoccupied with establishing the causal relationships between concepts. The best-known of these methods is participant resezrch, which entails the sustained immersion of the researcher among those whom he or she seeks to study with a view to generating a rounded, in-depth account of the group, organization, or whatever.
One of the best-known techniques used by survey researchers to unravel the relative importance of a cluster of variables as prospective causes of a dependent variable is path analysis, which is an extension of multiple quwntity analysis that allows the analyst to tease out the contribution of each causal factor soxial controlling for the others.
In fact, although the positivist account has been questioned by some philosophers of sci- ence, it is misguided to believe that there is some absolutely definitive version socixl the nature of science.
None the less, positivism and a broad commitment to mimicking the natural sciences is clearly in evidence, and it is precisely to this flirta- tion that the proponents of qualitative research have taken exception over the years. Group discussions were pursued in tandem with observation and conventional unstructured interviews. These facts feed into the theoretical edifice pertaining to a particular domain of knowledge.
She finds that noted functionalists do not seem to have been especially predisposed to the survey technique and that, vice versa, survey researchers have not necessarily been strongly influenced by functionalism.
Quantity and quality in social research – Alan Bryman – Google Books
Secondly, structured observation, whereby the researcher records observations in accordance with a pre- determined schedule and quantifies the resulting data, displays many of the characteristics of quantitative research. By and large, qualita- tive researchers favour an approach in which the formulation and test- ing of theories and concepts proceeds in tandem with data collection. Because concepts and their measurement are so central to quantita- tive research, there is much concern about the technical requirements of operationalization.
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Their responses are then aggregated to form overall measures for the sample. In this view, the prime consid- eration is that of dovetailing the appropriate technique to a particular research question. The phenomenologist views human behaviour…as a product of how people interpret their world.
Central to the exercise of establishing internal validity is the ability to rule out alterna- tive explanations of a posited causal relationship. My wife, Sue, offered much stylistic advice, gesearch which I am grateful.
Platt draws these conclusions from an examination of the work of notable functionalists ane survey researchers in Ameri- can sociology, as well as from interviews with some particularly influ- ential survey researchers. Quantitty of the time he is concerned to extricate the causal relationships among his variables.
In recognition of such difficulties, longitudinal designs are often proposed. A battery of indicators of a particu- lar concept is often developed with little if any consideration of the underlying dimensions to that concept. Woods carried out postal questionnaire surveys of parents and third-year students in the throes of making subject choices in the school in which he was acting as a participant observer. It is not difficult to see why there might be a disparity between the recom- mendations of textbooks and much research practice, for validity issues can easily become fairly major projects for researchers who may see such issues as excessive distractions.
Both groups are exposed to an experimental stimulus—either autonomy or reesearch control.