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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Full text of ” A descriptive catalogue of the McClean collection of manuscripts in the Fitzwilliam Museum ” See other formats Please handle this volume with care. A part only, for in addition to sonery manuscripts he bequeathed early printed books, ivories, enamels, gems, and other objects of artistic interest. Nor must it pass unmentioned in this place that his magnificent collection of Greek coins, bequeathed by him to his eldest son, has by the generosity of that son become likewise the property petrarcw the Museum.

The catalogue of the Fitzwilliam Museum manuscripts issued in describes items. Acquisitions made between that year and the end of raised the number of manuscripts in the Museum to about As has been truly said, it almost doubled our possessions in this department. This was in itself a great matter. As to the date of formation of the collection, and its sources, the particulars which it has been possible to collect will be found brought together in a table of the manuscripts which follows this Preface.

A good many of the Horac, it appears, were bought as early as The names of some leading Italian booksellers figure largely in the list of sources, and so do those of the great English collectors.

The earlier provenances of the books have of course been noted ; there are books from VVeissenau, Wein- garten, Tegernsee, Treves, Morimund, Clermont-Ferrand, Durham, Lincoln, Lanthony ; but, as is natural in the case of a collection largely composed of books of private devotion, we find that private individuals form the majority- of the original owners.

The Maclean Collection is especially valuable to us in regard of its variety. It contains examples of many styles of writing and of decoration of which we previously had no specimen. Very few of our manuscripts were earlier than the thirteenth century: We have, besides, gained for the first time specimens of Greek calli- graphy, uncial and minuscule, of early German and Spanish book- decoration: Moreover, the contents of the books are in many cases of high interest.

This is especially true of the vernacular texts: One may hope that the publication of this catalogue will bring petrarac elucidators of our treasures. The arrangement and the scope of this catalogue demand some explanation.

I have classified the manuscripts according to their subject, as the annexed synopsis will show: These include Evangelistaria, etc. The versified Bible of Petgarca de Riga is also soneyt. The last named of which there are 34 specimens are arranged under countries — Italy, Spain, France, England, the Nether- lands.

Petrarxa division ends with three books which may be classed as Passionals. This large class I have arranged according to the language of the te. Divided again according to language: The Oriental manuscripts, an album of fragments, and a late Portolano close the list. Ill making the description of the manuscripts I have kept to the plan which I have ptirsucd in other cases, and have tried to give information about the following points in each case: The opening and closing words of each treatise are petfarca — except of course in the descriptions of Biblical and Liturgical books: My object, in short, has been to supply such particulars as will enable a student to judge if a particular manuscript contains matter of importance to his studies, whether textual or artistic.

But at this point I must enter a plea which is none the less to be regarded because I have entered it before. Since the day when I began attempting to describe manuscripts something more than petearca years ago the number of specialists, and the available knowledge about the countless sources of manuscript lore, have increased far faster than my capacity for absorbing it or my leisure for collecting it.

The only practical and practicable course for me has been to give what I could and not to pretend to myself or to anyone else that I had given everything. In compiling the present volume I have received valuable help from several quarters.

It has already appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Society for Francewco has done the same for the single Irish volume. Two valuable Appendixes upon the Heraldry of the manuscripts, and upon Peter of Blois, have been contributed respectively by Mr A.

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The Index is the work of the Benedictine Nuns of Stanbrook. Other obligations I trust are duly acknow- ledged in the relevant places.

May I be allowed, on behalf of those who will use the catalogue, as well as on my own account, to offer cordial thanks to these kind helpers? The Syndics of the University Press, who have undertaken the printing of the volume, and the staff of the Press, who have had to read my ” copy,” are not to be forgotten in this expression of gratitude. For all statements which I myself have made wrongly, or which I ought to have made and have omitted, and for any failures to correct misprints, I can but apologize.

His eminence in his profession and his reputation as a man of sound judgment are indicated by the fact that he was a member of several Royal Commissions. His advice was also sought by the Emperor Louis Napoleon about improvements in the City of Paris, and he was one of the English engineers who urged the completion of the Suez Canal at a time when the abandonment of that great work was contemplated by the Khedive.

Immediately after taking his degree he became a pupil of Sir John Hawkshavv and was employed on the drainage works of the Fen Districts of the Eastern Counties. Shortly afterwards he became resident engineer of the Barrow Docks and of the Furness and Midland Railway and acted in this capacity for about four years.

In he married Ellen, the daughter of Mr John Greg, of Escowbeck, Lancaster, and for the next four or five years lived in London, working in the office of the firm ; but in he withdrew from the active pursuit of his profession and went to live at Ferncliffe, Tunbridgc Wells. Here he found quiet and leisure for congenial studies and for scientific research, and he devoted himself quietly and methodically to work. As an example of his thoroughness, it may be mentioned that on finding his studies seriously impeded by his ignorance of foreign languages, he mastered both French and Italian in his thirty-fifth year, and he read widely in ancient and modern history.

He travelled much on the Continent and knew the principal galleries and museums intimately. His own superb collections of ancient coins, manuscripts, early printed books, enamels and ivories were made methodically ; he did not collect in a haphazard way, he had an ordered plan and as far as he could he chose his speci- mens to illustrate evolution in art. He did not often talk of these matters, but now and then he would open out and let one see the value he attached to the humanizing influence of art, his delight in some finished piece of workmanship and his knowledge of its position and value in the history of artistic development.

He thought that scientific men were often too much absorbed in their own special work.

Perhaps he felt that his own method of research left him somewhat isolated ; for he never employed an assistant, but carried out all the laborious details of his scientific work with his own hands ; thus, for instance, in his very brief lahe of his study of the spectrum of high and low sun, he gives details of the methods he himself employed for the sensitisation of the photo- graphic plates.

So, also, his many portfolios of photographic enlargements which he himself made from his original negatives of spectra show how systematically he carried out the tedious pro- cesses of manipulation for the sake of being able to put into the hands of other investigators the material which he had gathered together by his own industry.

The same sort of activity and system are evidenced by the choice collections which he bequeathed to the University of Cambridge for preservation in the Fitzwilliam Museum. The manuscripts which he bequeathed are in number and range in date from the eighth to the eighteenth century; and there are besides early printed books. By his bequests the resources of the Museum have been nearly doubled slnety each of these departments.

In the Footsteps of the Ancients: The Origins of Humanism from Lovato to Bruni

Xlll ‘Quarterly Journal of Mathematics’ in i; but he did not pursue this line of research, and it is in connection with spectroscopy that he made his mark in science. Meanwhile, abouthe invented the simple and efficient star spectroscope which bears his name.

He used it in connection with a inch reflector in making visual observations of star spectra at Ferncliffe. This form of spectroscope is a direct-vision instrument; it is furnished with a slit, which, however, may be dispensed with in stellar obser- vations ; in place of the usual plano-convex lens a cylindrical lens is inserted between the slit and the lque, and thus a lengthened image of the slit is formed in its principal focal plane. The observer thus sees a broad spectrum in which the lines can be much more readily detected than in the linear spectrum of a frajcesco.

Mr Maclean’s first published paper on spectroscopic matters is one relating to his photographs pdtrarca the red end of the solar spectrum between the lines D and A ‘ Monthly Notices, Royal Astronomical Society,’vol.

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In the Footsteps of the Ancients: The Origins of Humanism from Lovato to Bruni – [PDF Document]

He had been for several years previously working at solar observations, and for three years at least,had made records of the positions and drawings of the forms of the notable prominences on the sun’s limb. These records survive unpublished, but it is only from a question put to Father Perry at a meeting of the Ro ‘al Astronomical Society in January,that we learn that he had paid attention to solar phenomena for nine years previously.

He remarked at that same meeting that his observations afforded some evidence of the recur- rence of prominences at fi. Wells, whither he moved in He had arranged the spacious attics of the house, so as to serve as a laboratory, with electrical and other appliances.

In the roof was fixed a polar heliostat which reflected sunlight down a telescope which pointed to the pole. By a second reflection the light passed into a diffraction grating spectroscope.

This installation was designed for solar studies and for researches on the spectra of the metals. At the west end of the house he erected an observatory containing an equatorial of 8 inches aperture. It was invery shortly after the completion of his new house and laboratory, that Rowland’s map of the solar spectrum first appeared ; this map exhibited the spectrum from wave-length to In fact, nearly one-half of the visible spectrum remained to be photographed.

This work was completed in December,almost simultaneously with the publication of the final edition of Rowland’s map, which covers the range Mr Maclean’s work was done with a Rutherford grating from until In he substituted a Rowland plane grating. Mr Maclean next embarked upon a more extensive piece of work, part of which he carried out and published in the form of a portfolio of ” Comparative Photographic Spectra of the Sun and the Metals. The range of spectrum shown is from to ; it is divided into six sections corresponding to the sections of Angstrom’s chart, the scale of the plates being i mm.

Series II deals in similar manner with the metals of the iron- copper group, viz. XV chosen in order to get a full spark spectrum of air; iron was chosen ” on account of its close correspondence with the solar spectrum, and its thus furnishing the best means of co-ordinating the spectra of the other metals with the solar spectrum. This paper is the last which he published dealing with solar phenomena. This survey was completed inand the general results, together with 17 plates reproducing the spectra of stars, were published in the ‘ Transactions’ of the Royal Society in May, With this he had in six months secured photographs of the spectra of stars.

In the Northern Survey one of the results of interest was that the bright helium stars were more numerous, relatively to other stars, near the galactic plane than near its poles. This point was amply cor- roborated by the Southern Survey. A further result of interest in the latter survey was the discovery of the fact that oxygen is shown by the visibility of several characteristic lines in the spectrum to be present in many of the helium stars. Among his other work may be noticed his researches on the spectrum of the variable star j3 Lyra;, published inand his work on Nova Persei, carried out in his sixty-fifth year, and pub- lished inafter his death.

He showed his affection for his Ahna Mater Cambridge by several endowments. First of all, inhe founded the Isaac Newton Studentships; and it was characteristic of him that he declined to allow his own name to be attached to these endowments. The Isaac Newton Studentships were intended to encourage post- graduate study and research in astronomy especially gravitational, but including other branches of astronomy and astrophysics and physical optics.

The studentships afford opportunities for men to devote themselves for three years to research at a time in their lives when, under ordinary circumstances, it would be necessary to search for other paid employment. The records of the holders of the studentships afford a remarkable testimony to the success of the endowment. By this endowment the Stokes and Cayley lectureships were founded.

In Mr Maclean proposed to Sir David Gill to provide a large photographic telescope fitted with very complete spectro- scopic appliances for the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope, in order that the attack on celestial problems might be carried on with greater power in the Southern Hemisphere. This equatorial, with large circumpolar motion, is a twin refractor, by Grubb, consisting of an inch visual telescope coupled with a inch photographic telescope.

He had intended to accompany the British Association to South Africa inprincipally with the object of seeing his telescope in use.